The overall usefulness of metals is due largely to the ease by which they can be formed into useful shapes. Nearly all metal products undergo metal deformation at some stage of their manufacture. By rolling, cast ingots, strands and slabs are reduced in size and converted into basic forms such as sheets, rods and plates. These forms then undergo further deformation to produce wire, or the myriad of finished products formed by processes such as forging, extrusion, sheet metal forming and others. The deformation may be bulk flow in three dimensions, simple shearing, simple or compound bending or complex combinations of these. The stresses producing these deformations can be tension, compression, shear…the specific processes are numerous and varied .
- DeGarmo, E.P.; Black J.T.; Kohser, R.A.; Klamecki, B.E. "Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, Ninth Edition." Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2003.