This chapter will discuss communication, engineering ethics, the difference between supervision and management, and organizational psychology. This section will explain the difference between supervision and management, as well as describe the important elements of management activities. Centralization-decentralization has to do with where real authority resides. Span of management, also known as span-of-control, refers to the number of subordinates a manager is in charge of. The higher a manager goes in a line-and-staff organization, the larger his or her span of control becomes. A project refers to all activities associated with the achievement of a set of specific objectives considered worthy of financial support. Organizational behavior is more complex than a collection of individual behaviors. A manufacturing manager needs to understand how membership in a group affects individuals, how groups define individual roles, how norms are established and controlled, and how decisions are made by groups.