Manufacturing involves the assembling of a system of people, money, materials, and machinery for the purpose of building a product. Tools of one kind or another have enabled mankind to survive and contribute to societal development for over a million years. This chapter describes the major historical development of manufacturing processes and machine tool design. The structure of a manufacturing organization generally continues to expand as the size of the organization increases. The planning, tooling, coordination, and control of manufacturing processes are critical to the operation of an effective and efficient manufacturing system. Manufacturing Engineering must work closely with Product Design and Quality Assurance to facilitate the infusion of new products and new quality standards into the manufacturing operation’s product mix. The Industrial Engineering group plays a major coordinative role in the manufacturing process through its activities in establishing work standards, setting up and balancing production schedules, and providing timely and accurate information on the status of many elements of the manufacturing system.