This chapter examines the following: non-polymeric matrix materials, properties and uses of ceramic matrix composites, manufacturing of ceramic matrix composites, and properties, uses of metal matrix composites, and manufacturing of metal matrix composites. Standing back now and taking a look at all the polymeric matrix materials as a group, some common characteristics can be seen when they are compared to non-polymeric matrix materials (ceramics and metals), which will be discussed in this chapter. The most inviting applications for ceramic matrix composites are where polymer matrix composites are least likely to be used — in high-temperature environments and where high stiffness is required. Many ceramic matrix materials are solid powders before they are formed into composite materials. Metal matrix composites consist of high-performance reinforcements in a metallic matrix. Whereas ceramic matrix composites are usually associated with specific high-temperature or high-stiffness applications, metal matrix composites might be chosen to simply upgrade a part that is otherwise made of the metal matrix material without the reinforcement.