What's the Connection?
A look at popular machining center spindle connections
By Jim Destefani
A lot of attention is paid to the "business end" of CNC toolholders--the part that actually holds the tool. And rightly so: the ability of the holder to clamp a tool tightly and evenly, with minimal runout, at increasing spindle speeds, impacts productivity concerns ranging from speeds and feeds to tool and spindle life to part dimensional accuracy and surface finish.
But what about the other end of the toolholder--the spindle connection? It can also impact productivity, in ways both positive and negative.
If you're equipping an existing machine, the connection is what it is. But, if you're in the market for a new machining center, it may be worth considering what type of connection you wish to have based on the advantages and limitations of each technology. Here's a look at the relative merits of popular spindle connections for machining center applications, as well as a sampling of new toolholding products for milling (see sidebar).
Over the years, there have been many spindle connection configurations developed for a variety of applications. But for machining centers, there are two systems commonly in use: V-taper and HSK.
Most solid V-taper holders have a collar or flange that allows the tool to be grasped by the machining center's toolchange mechanism. Toolholders with a single collar are generally designated as NMTB.
Dual-flange holders are either V-flange or BT-flange, depending on the precise flange configuration. V-flange toolholders are often referred to as Caterpillar or simply CAT tooling, because the design was developed about 30 years ago by engineers at Caterpillar Tractor Co. working in conjunction with machine builders. The design eventually became a national standard, and the majority of toolholders currently in use in the US are CAT style. Japanese and European applications, on the other hand, may use BT-flange holders.
| Current Toolholder Products for Milling
Here's a look at some of the latest toolholding products for machining center applications. Reader service numbers for each are provided at the end of the main article.
Briney Tooling Systems (Bad Axe, MI) is one of several companies emphasizing shrink-fit tooling. Aimed at bringing shrinker technology to smaller shops, the company's tabletop Thermax induction heating unit can shrink-fit H-6 tolerance steel and carbide cutting tools from 0.125 to 1.00" (3*25-mm) diam into V-flange and HSK toolholders. The 7.5-kVa system can handle tool lengths to 18.75" (475 mm). It's said to provide simple, reliable operation and rapid cycles at a cost up to 30% less than similarly powered competitive devices. Programs are stored in an on-board PLC, and the unit also features four integrated cool-down positions with fans.
Compared to standard ER collet chucks, TE toolholders are 250% shorter from the face of the collet nut to the spindle, according to supplier Techniks Inc. (Indianapolis). The holders' compact design improves rigidity, making them well-suited for high-speed or high-torque machining applications. Claimed benefits include reduced runout, extended tool life, and an expanded Z axis. Holders are factory balanced to 20,000 rpm at G2.5, and are available for CAT 40, CAT 50, and BT 40 spindles.
Another collet system, XT Precision from Command Tooling Systems (Sunfish Lake, MN), is said to offer good accuracy and gripping pressure over a wide range of spindle speeds. Said to be ideal for long-run milling, drilling, and reaming operations, the system is said to allow precise tool centering and rigidity. The results are longer tool life, more accurate cutting, and balanced chip-loads that Command says can double metal removal rates. Runout of <5 µm with standard deviation of 1 µm at the collet face is guaranteed when collets are used with matching chucks. The line is available in HSK 63 and 100, V-flange 30, 40, 45, and 50, and BT-Flange 30, 35, 40, and 50 in metric sizes ranging from 0.5 mm to 26 mm.
Inherent balance is one of the oft-cited attributes of shrink-fit tooling. But Vectaron shrink-fit toolholders from Tecnara Tooling Systems Inc. (Santa Fe Springs, CA) combine shrink-fit and balanceability to G2.5 at 30,000 rpm. The tools use a balancing ring mounted on the toolholder and balancing balls in three weights to enable fast and accurate balancing. A slim nose design reduces workpiece interference while maintaining rigidity. Runout is said to be 0.0002" (5 µm) at length of 4 X diameter. The tools are available in V-taper and HSK configurations.
A relatively new North American player--at least in the area of machining center toolholding --is Seco-Carboloy (Warren, MI). The company, which says it wants to be "responsible from spindle to cutting tool," has just launched its Monobloc integral-shank tooling line in the NAFTA market. Available as shrink-fit holders in HSK and V-taper styles, the tools are pre-balanced and feature tapers manufactured to ISO tolerance AT3. The line includes coolant-through face mill holders, which are designed specifically to work with Carboloy's range of milling cutters.
Offering an alternative to shrink-fit tooling is the powRgrip mechanical toolholding system from Rego-Fix Tool Corp. (Indianapolis). Consisting of a toolholder, collet, and a hydraulic benchtop press, the system achieves very high clamping force using the mechanical properties of the holder material. Gripping is achieved using the elasticity of the holder material. The assembly process takes only a few seconds, and, once assembled, runout is quoted as 0.00012" (3 µm) at 4 X the tool diameter out from the nose. The tooling is available in HSK and V-taper styles.
The variations in flange configuration mean that CAT and BT tools are not interchangeable; damage to the machining center's ATC or tools flying around the shop floor could result from switching one type for the other.
But the spindle connections of both types of holders use the same taper--3.5" in 12". And, both use the same size definitions, ranging from 30-taper to 60-taper. Small 30-taper tools are most often used in drilling centers and other similar applications. Only the very largest machine tools would require 60-taper, which is relatively rare. The vast majority of machining centers that use solid V-taper tooling have either a 40- or 50-taper spindle.
Standard V-taper toolholders make contact with the spindle along a corresponding taper in the spindle body, and are held tightly against the spindle taper by a drawbar mechanism. Even when the holder is fully seated in the spindle, a small gap remains between the toolholder flange and the spindle face.
According to one toolholder manufacturer, solid V-taper tools are economical, reliable, and do the job for the majority of machining center applications. But, at higher spindle speeds--possibly as low as 10,000 - 12,000 rpm, and certainly at 20,000 rpm--the dimensional accuracy of V-taper tools may be reduced. This is due to centrifugal forces resulting from high speeds, which cause the size of the spindle mouth to increase slightly, or "bell mouth." As the spindle mouth grows, it allows the drawbar to pull the tool farther up into the spindle, compromising Z-axis accuracy. If the holder pulls far enough into the spindle, it could even stick and damage the machine. The tool may also move off center, affecting accuracy in the X and Y axes as well.
| Licensed by 50 machine builders, BIG Kaiser's BIG Plus system uses simultaneous face and taper contact to combat spindle bell-mouthing at high speeds.
The HSK spindle interface is growing in popularity, particularly in high-speed operations. HSK features a shorter taper design that speeds tool changes, but its main advantage is that it solves the problem of bell-mouthing at higher spindle speeds by using contact between both the spindle face and taper. HSK holders come in several sizes; HSK 63 and 100--the approximate equivalents of CAT 40 and 50-- are the most commonly used.
The taper on HSK tools is not only shorter than V-taper tooling, it's also hollow. In spindles designed for the HSK connection, the drawbar causes gripper fingers to wedge into the clamping position. The fingers pull the toolholder into the spindle, resulting in an interference fit in the spindle and forcing the toolholder flange against the spindle face. This in turn results in excellent radial and axial positioning.
The drawbar system in an HSK spindle provides a positive lock between the toolholder and spindle, and it does so without preloading the entire spindle. Centrifugal force resulting from spindle rotation actually increases the system's gripping strength and rigidity.
According to one supplier, the HSK design increases static and dynamic rigidity by a factor of four or more over V-taper tooling. Face contact provides repeatable and constant Z-axis positioning, and runout is low due to the tight tolerances between the spindle and tool shank.
But those same tolerances can be an enemy if contamination is a problem. As one source for this article points out, contamination can make a long taper connection run badly, but it can cause an HSK spindle connection to fail.
This can happen because the HSK taper is hollow. Its dimensional compliance takes up any allowable tolerance in the connection. But, when contamination prevents the toolholder face from seating, the torque of machining can initiate cracking between the corner of the deep keyway and the hole in the taper. Eventually, the toolholder shank will fail, which can also damage the spindle.
Alternatives to both V-taper and HSK tooling attempt to combine the best features of both systems while minimizing their weaknesses.
An example that offers simultaneous contact with both the spindle face and taper is the BIG Plus system, offered in the US by BIG/Kaiser Precision Tooling Inc. (Elk Grove Village, IL). According to the company, this patented connection is the de-facto standard in Japan, licensed for use by that country's largest machine builders.
The system can be used with spindles configured for V-taper tools, but achieves dual contact by eliminating the gap between the machine spindle face and the toolholder flange face. For example, BIG/Kaiser says, CAT 40 and 50 tooling will normally have a gap of roughly 0.125" (3.2 mm) between the spindle face and the toolholder flange face. The BIG Plus connection reduces this gap to zero when toolholders designed specifically for the system are used.
Users can also continue to use conventional V-taper tooling in situations when higher rigidity or accuracy is not required. With standard tools, the gap between spindle face and holder flange face for CAT 40 - 50 tooling is 0.04 - 0.06" (1 - 1.5 mm).
A proprietary system offered by Lyndex-Nikken (Mundelein, IL) also uses dual contact to improve cutting performance and lengthen tool life, the company says.
The 3Lock system uses internal expanding pressure to maintain correct taper-to-flange ratio and counteract centrifugal force produced by spindle rotation. The system compensates for bell mouthing at high speeds by preloading the toolholder taper against the spindle bore.
An added benefit of this construction is the dampening effect created by the spring and sleeve design. Toolholders consist of a solid conical core, like that of a traditional V-taper toolholder, surrounded by a cone-shaped shell. Featuring an axial slit, the shell can move independently of the solid core. A Belleville disk spring between the slit shell and the taper flange compresses when the holder is drawn up into the spindle bore, creating a preload on the shell. Thus, as the spindle bore begins to bell-mouth, the shell compensates and maintains full taper contact.
According to Lyndex-Nikken, the resulting stability under dynamic cutting conditions enables the toolholder to absorb vibrations and slight out-of-balance conditions, improving tool life and workpiece surface finishes. The system is compatible with standard V-taper tools.
This article was first published in the June 2004 edition of Manufacturing Engineering magazine.